Urine Cytology

Urine Cytology

Urine Cytology Most of the time, the sample is collected as clean catch urine sample in your doctor’s office or at home. This is done by urinating into a special container. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting into a urine sample. To collect your urine, the health care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile wipes. Follow instructions exactly so that the results are accurate. The urine sample can also be collected during cystoscopy. During this procedure, your health care provider uses a thin tube-like instrument with a camera on the end to examine the inside of your bladder. The urine sample is sent to a lab and examined under a microscope to look for abnormal cells. Source: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003905.htm Download Requisition...
FISH for Bladder Cancer

FISH for Bladder Cancer

FISH for Bladder Cancer UroVysion is a fluorescence in situ hybridization assay that was developed for the detection of bladder cancer in urine specimens. It consists of fluorescently labeled DNA probes to the pericentromeric regions of chromosomes 3 (red), 7 (green), and 17 (aqua) and to the 9p21 band (gold) location of the P16 tumor suppressor gene. The UroVysion assay works by detecting urinary cells that have chromosomal abnormalities consistent with a diagnosis of bladder cancer. Studies have shown that UroVysion is more sensitive than urine cytology for the detection of all stages and grades of bladder cancer. UroVysion is Food and Drug Administration-approved for the detection of recurrent bladder cancer in voided urine specimens from patients with a history of bladder cancer and for the detection of bladder cancer in voided urine specimens from patients with gross or microscopic hematuria, but no previous history of bladder cancer. Recent studies also suggest that UroVysion may be useful for assessing superficial bladder cancer patients’ response to bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy and in detecting upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18724101 Download Requisition...
Cytochrome P450 2C19 Genotyping Assay

Cytochrome P450 2C19 Genotyping Assay

Cytochrome P450 2C19 Genotyping Assay The FDA cleared Luminex xTAG CYP2C19 assay, offered by CMCD, is an in vitro diagnostic test used to simultaneously detect and identify a panel of nucleotide variants found within the highly polymorphic CYP450 2C19 gene, located on the chromosome 10q24, from genomic DNA. The xTAG CYP2C19 is a qualitative genotyping assay which can be used as an aid to clinicians in determining therapeutic strategy for therapeutics that are metabolized by the CYP2C19 gene product, specifically *2, *3, and *17 CYP2C19 acts on 5-10% of drugs in current clinical use. About 2-6% of individuals of European origin, and 10-20% of Africans have a slow acting, poor metabolizer form of this enzyme. However there is wide variability among populations. CYP2C19 is an important drug metabolizing enzyme that catalyzes the biotransformation of many other clinically useful drugs including antidepressants, barbiturates, proton pump inhibitors, antimalarial and antitumor drugs. Collection Method (For 2D6 and 2C19) Please call Client Services at (330) 405-2623 to obtain specimen kits. Type: Buccal Swabs Turn Around Time: 5 Days from receipt of specimen in laboratory The effectiveness of Plavix is dependent on its activation to an active metabolite by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system, principally CYP2C19. Poor metabolizers with acute coronary syndrome or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention treated with Plavix at recommended doses exhibit higher cardiovascular event rates than do patients with normal CYP2C19 function. Download Requisition...
Cytochrome P450 2D6 Genotyping Assay

Cytochrome P450 2D6 Genotyping Assay

Cytochrome P450 2D6 Genotyping Assay   The FDA cleared Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 assay, offered by CMCD, is used to simultaneously detect and identify a panel of nucleotide variants found within the highly polymorphic CYP2D6 gene located on chromosome 22 from genomic DNA. This kit can also identify gene rearrangements associated with the deletion (*5) genotype. CYP2D6 acts on 25% of all prescription drugs. 7-14% of the population has a slow acting form of this enzyme and 7% a super-fast acting form. 35 percent are carriers of a nonfunctional CYP2D6 allele, which especially elevates the risk of adverse drug reactions when these individuals are taking multiple drugs. Drugs that CYP2D6 metabolizes include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), tricylic antidepressants (TCA), beta-blockers, opiates, neuroleptics, antiarrhythmics and a variety of toxic plant substances. Specific notable drugs include Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, Effexor, hydrocodone, amitriptyline, Claritin, cyclobenzaprine, Haldol, metoprolol, Rythmol, Tagamet, tamoxifen, and the over-the-counter diphenylhydramine drugs, Allegra, Dytuss, and Tusstat. CYP2D6 is also responsible for activating the prodrugs codeine and other opioids into their active forms. The analgesic activity of the drugs is therefore reduced or absent in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. Indication for Testing For individuals with a personal or family history of adverse drug reactions to medications metabolized by CYP2D6. Confirm presence of genotypes that affect the metabolism of drugs such as tamoxifen that are metabolized by CYP2D6. For individuals with a personal or family history of adverse drug reactions to medications metabo- lized by CYP2C19. Confirm presence of genotypes that affect the metabolism of drugs such as Plavix that are metabolized by cytochrome CYP2C19.   Collection Method (For 2D6 and 2C19)...
FISH for HER2/Neu (ERBB2)

FISH for HER2/Neu (ERBB2)

FISH for HER2/Neu (ERBB2)   CMCD performs the FDA-approved PathVysion® HER-2 FISH which was found to be the “most accurate, reproducible, and precise assay for assessment of known HER-2-overexpressing breast cancers. According to the American Cancer Society, about 15% to 30% of people with breast cancer test positive for HER2. HER2-positive breast cancer contains a protein called human epidermal growth factor receptor – 2 (HER2). HER2 promotes the growth of cancer cells and increases the likelihood of faster growth and recurrence than other types of tumors. ERBB2 testing is used to predict 5-year disease-free and overall survival in patients with breast cancer, assess eligibility for trastuzumab (Herceptin®) treatment, assist in dose selection for certain drugs, and predict response to drug therapies. Collection Method Type: Tumor Tissue Preparation: Formalin fix (10 percent neutral buffered formalin) and paraffin embed tissue within 30 minutes of removal from patient. Fixative duration: 8-48 hours. Transport tissue block or 10 unstained (3-to 5-micron thick sections), positively charged slides in a tissue transport kit Transport Temperature: Room temperature or refrigerated. Ship in cooled container during summer months. When compared with PathVysion, a study found the HER-2 FISH pharmDx kit to be less than 95% concordant Download Requisition...